Diet and Lifestyle – there are many diet programs available which include combinations of low-fat and low-carbohydrate. They have some success in the short-term, but maintenance of weight loss in the longer-term can be difficult with this approach alone.
Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for obesity. It achieves long-term sustained weight loss, improvement in obesity-related illnesses, and reduces overall mortality.
There are three procedures which are most commonly performed:
Laparoscopic gastric sleeve
Laparoscopic roux-en-Y gastric bypass
Laparoscopic adjustable gastric band
These procedures work by a process of either restriction, malabsorption, or a combination of both.
Restriction is due to a reduction in the size of the stomach where food enters. The smaller stomach therefore fills up more quickly and leads to the sensation of feeling full after eating only a small amount of food.
Malabsorption is when the absorption of food (and therefore calories) by the gut is reduced, by re-plumbing the gut so that food bypasses a long segment of intestine.